(by Jeff Ward-Bailey, student technologist)
Government surveillance has been a frequent news items ever since the summer of 2013, when Edward Snowden leaked his first set of documents to journalists, explaining the software tools the NSA uses to monitor communications in the United States and abroad. But governments have employed shadowy means to gather intelligence about their own citizens and those of other countries, and have even attempted to disrupt the operations of governments perceived to be hostile to their interests, for many years.
In 2008 a sophisticated piece of malware called “Regin” began spying on governments and individuals in Russia, Saudi Arabia, Ireland, and a handful of other countries. Security researchers didn’t notice Regin until 2014, but the software hadn’t done any damage to infected systems: it had simply run in the background, watching its targets. Researchers initially surmised that Regin had been written by the US, Israel, or the UK to gather intelligence on foreign governments, and further investigation suggested that the British GCHQ spy agency had written the malware.
In 2010 the Stuxnet computer worm was discovered, which targeted industrial controllers in Iran and caused centrifuges used for the enrichment of nuclear material to tear themselves apart. It’s still not known for certain who wrote Stuxnet, but in 2011 Wired reported that it was “believed to have been created by the United States,” and in 2012 The New York Times reported that it was the product of a joint US-Israeli intelligence operation.
Earlier this year security researchers uncovered a suite of surveillance platforms nicknamed EquationLaser, EquationDrug, and GrayFish. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the tools may be connected with the NSA (for example, the tools in the platforms match the names of tools in an NSA spy tool catalog leaked in 2013). Five Iranian companies who were previously infected by Stuxnet were also infected by the “Equation Group” tools.
Few would argue that when a government intentionally infects another government’s systems with malware in an effort to spy on them that practice is, at least, in an ethical grey area. But is such cyberspying (some would call it cyberwarfare, especially when the destruction of property is involved) necessary to protect against attacks? Does the potential for mitigating harm outweigh the ethical implications of spying? And does a government’s mandate to protect the safety of its citizens justify the practice of hacking or spying on other governments?